The word PHOTOGRAPHY comes from two Greek words. These two are photos ( light ) and graphos ( drawing ). Therefore, the earliest meanig of ‘photography’ is to draw with light.
The Photographic Camera comes directly from the Camera Obscura. This was a drk room with hole through which light passed and projected onto the opposite wall. The image was pjected without the aid of a lens.
How does it work?
Light from a brightly lit object outside the Camera Obscura enters the tiny hole and is projected as an upside down image on the opposite wall.
Because light travels in straight lines, the light form the top of the object travels down through the hole towards the bottom of the wall. Light from the bottom of the object travels upwards through the hole towards the top of the wall. The results in the image being inverted, or upside down.